Place names of Indus Valley Civilization sites which have been excavated are important for text decipherment..Recovery of artifacts from these sites increases chances of availability of place names in the seals, as these were as address tags..Some of these exotic names include –
Ancient Mesopotamian texts speak of trading with at least two seafaring civilizations – Magan and Meluhha – in the neighborhood of South Asia in the third millennium B.C. This trade was conducted with real financial sophistication ,in amounts that could involve tons of copper. Mesopotamians speak of Meluhha as a land of exotic commodities. A wide variety of objects produced in the Indus region have been found at sites in Mesopotamia. This is definitely one of the names of famous IVC cities, and could be Mohen Jo Daro
Beth Nahrain,is the Aramaic name of Mesopotamia attested since the adoption of Old Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BCE
The current Greek name Mesopotamia was first coined in the 2nd century BCE by the historian Polybius during the Seleucid period. Narhain does appear in Indus texts.
One of Sumer’s largest cities, also the largest city in the world, had at its height ,a population of 50-80,000.Discoveries of obsidian from far-away locations in Anatolia and lapis lazuli from Badakhshan in northeastern Afghanistan, beads from Dilmun (modern Bahrain), and several seals inscribed with the Indus Valley script in Mesopotamian cities suggest a remarkably wide-ranging network of ancient trade centered around the Persian Gulf. Trade extended from the silver mines of Anatolia to lapis lazuli mines in Afghanistan, the cedars of Lebanon and the copper of Magan.
Magan (also Makkan) was an ancient region which was referred to in Sumerian cuneiform texts of around 2300 BC and continued to be to a source of copper and diorite for Mesopotamia up to 550 BC The archeological and geological evidence suggests that Oman was the land of Magan, which appears in Sumerian cuneiform texts ca. 2300 B.C. as a source of copper and diorite for the city-states of Mesopotamia,
These texts tell us that ships with a cargo capacity of 20 tons sailed up the Arabian Gulf, stopping at Dilmun to take on fresh water before continuing to Mesopotamia. They also say that Magan lay south of Sumer and Dilmun, was frequented by Indus Valley travelers, and had high mountains from which diorite or gabbro(hard black stone) for black statues was quarried..
During 1950s, Danish archaeologists excavating grave mounds in Bahrain, northwest of Oman, found 4,200-year-old settlements and temples of the city-state of Dilmun, known as the city of the gods in ancient Sumerian literature.
Umm Qais is a town in northern Jordan near the site of the ancient town of Gadara. It is situated in the extreme north-west of the country, where the borders of Jordan, Israel and Syria meet A clay tag recovered from Umms with Indus inscription would indicate trade relations between Indus cities and Umms.
It has been possible to decipher the following texts post 4